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Internet was created during the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union. As each country worked to increase its science and technology capabilities, it was also prepared to attack the other should the situation devolve, as well as prevent nuclear attacks from the other. Mainframe computers were much larger and more expensive than today’s models. They took up entire rooms, and they could only perform specific tasks. Researchers needed to be able to use the computers to perform these tasks, but they often had to travel long distances to locate the computers that were necessary. Researchers were able to share data without having to travel to the computer location by connecting the computers so they could talk to each other.
Internet connections were first made to mainframe computers
When computers were able to communicate with each other, the process of circuit switching, which took a long time and was easily interrupted, led to the Internet being created. It was impossible to send all of the data in one packet, and if the connection was interrupted at any time during the process, none of the data would get through. Scientists developed packet switching to solve this issue. Each segment of the data could be sent separately with packet switching. The smaller amounts of data took less time to transfer, and if an interruption occurred, some of the data would have made it through and the process could have continued without having to start over completely. A complete packet could be reassembled when the data reached its destination.
From here on, the internet continued to evolve. Packet switching allowed computers to be connected to each other over an ARPANET network. When did the internet begin? In 1969, the first computers communicated with each other over ARPANET from UCLA to SRI in California. Initially, there were only four nodes on this network, but many more were added to allow research universities to share information and resources. Several other networks emerged after ARPANET, but they couldn’t communicate with each other. Consequently, a set of rules known as TCP/IP, or Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol, were developed as a solution to this problem. As a result of these rules, packets sent over a network were delivered to the correct destination and allowed universal communication across all networks.
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Timeline of the Internet
It was launched in 1991 that the World Wide Web allowed users to locate resources and web pages using Uniform Resource Locators, or URLs, from any connected computer. When the computer locates a resource on the internet, it uses the URL as an address. Also used on the Web are HTTP, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, which allows users to download linked resources, and HTML, Hypertext Markup Language, for formatting web pages. In fact, even though people often refer to the Web as the internet, it is actually a service on the internet.
MIT’s Lincoln Lab first connected two computers using packet switching technology in 1965, marking the beginning of the internet.
History of the network
In order to exist, the internet would need networks. A network is simply a collection of devices that can communicate with each other. They can be connected either wirelessly or with cables, and include devices like smartphones, computers, tablets, and printers. ARPANET is one of the most famous early networks, but there have been plenty of others throughout history. Each of the early networks was designed with a specific purpose in mind.
This network was the first to connect computers that were located in different geographical locations. In 1969, it went online using phone lines to connect computers. By 1990, ARPANET had evolved into the internet, when so many computers had connected to one another that it had been deactivated.
The National Science Foundation funded CSNET in 1981 as a way to connect computer science researchers at different universities. It provided universities with internet access that ARPANET was not able to provide.
As a result of NSFNET, several supercomputers were connected across the country and widespread internet use grew rapidly during the 80s and 90s.
A separate unclassified network was established in 1983 to serve Department of Defense users who were previously part of ARPANET.
What is the difference between ARPANET and the World Wide Web?
It is very different to the World Wide Web from ARPANET. ARPANET was a physical system for connecting computers, while the World Wide Web was a set of protocols and languages for navigating those connections. A major difference between ARPANET and the World Wide Web is that ARPANET is hardware and the World Wide Web is software.
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